Poor nutrition is the world’s most serious health problem. Plant breeding is one of the shortest and most effective routes to improving global health through better nutrition. Genetic diversity and plant breeding are the key elements in enhancing the value of crops for improving nutrition. The integration of plant breeding in global nutrition strategies is a route to better health. Breeding can improve nutritional value of foods by increasing vitamins and minerals, antioxidants, fibre, and healthful oils. The genetic diversity of fruits and vegetables allow breeding for higher, more reliable yields, for greater availability and affordability.